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  1. An ancient kingdom that occupied parts of present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan


  1. Gandhāra is an ancient Scythian Kingdom based in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the Peshawar Valley, the Pothohar Plateau and the Kabul River Valley where it thrived in its early phases as a Mahajanapada during Iron Age India. Its main cities were Purushapura, literally meaning "city of men", and Takshashila . The Kingdom of Gandhara lasted from the early 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Buddhist Kushan Kings. The Hindu term Shahi is used by history writer Al-Biruni to refer to the ruling Hindu dynasty that took over from the Turki Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries. After it was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 AD, the name Gandhara disappeared. During the Muslim period the area was administered from Lahore or from Kabul. During Mughal times the area was part of Kabul province.


  1. The numerical value of gandhara in Chaldean Numerology is: 4

  2. The numerical value of gandhara in Pythagorean Numerology is: 9

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